Performance Enhancing Drugs
Performance-enhancing substances, also known as performance-enhancing drugs (PED), are substances that are used to improve any form of activity performance in humans. A well-known example involves doping in sport, where banned physical performance–enhancing drugs are used by athletes and bodybuilders. Athletic performance-enhancing substances are sometimes referred to as ergogenic aids. Cognitive performance-enhancing drugs, commonly called nootropics, are sometimes used by students to improve academic performance. Performance-enhancing substances are also used by military personnel to enhance combat performance.
The use of performance-enhancing drugs spans the categories of legitimate use and substance abuse.
Alpha GPC (Alpha-glycerophosphocholine) doses as high as 1000 mg three times daily have been used in some studies, but other studies report significant effects in volunteers at dosages as low as 600 mg once daily, at least in terms of boosting growth hormone (GH) . As a nootropic, the general recommended dosage is 100-500 mg...